By Rigomar Rieger
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Additional info for A Glossary of Genetics and Cytogenetics: Classical and Molecular
In the probionta, the cells possess specific organelles to accomplish all the important life functions; in the metabionta the cells are specialized, resulting in a division of labor whereby particular cells adopt specific functions (--+ cytodifferentiation). Each cell is a strictly delimited system which may be easily identified by its material nature, its structural organization and its behavioral expressions. e. the cellular substance as a whole, is differentiated into the --+ cvtoplasm and the cell --+ nucleus (in eukaryotes) or --+ nucleoid (in pr~to karyotes).
Cells of the multicellular metabionta are designated somatic if they are body cells. The -+ gametes and their immediate progenitors are the germ cells, in contrast to the somatic cells. Reproduction of the cell is accomplished by cell division. In the eukaryotes, this process is subdivided into -+ cytokinesis (cell cleavage) and karyokinesis (-+ mitosis, meiosis). During karyokinesis the -+ chromosomes may be recognized under a microscope; the chromosomes are contained within the nucleus during the period between two divisional cycles.
Centromere (Waldeyer 1903) - the region (or regions) of each -+ chromosome with which the -+ spindle fibers become associated during -+ mitosis and -+ meiosis. This association is a prerequisite for ordered -+ chromosome movement in the course of karyokinesis. Recent studies support the conclusion that the c. is directly involved in the organization of microtubular subunits into chromosomal spindle fibers. The c. is subject to its own cycle of functional reproduction: it divides, ordinarily, quite regularly at mitosis and at the second meiotic division (meiosis II).
A Glossary of Genetics and Cytogenetics: Classical and Molecular by Rigomar Rieger