By James C. Lin
The goal of this fourth quantity within the sequence Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in residing platforms remains similar to earlier volumes: so as to add a few major advances during this region of analysis to clinical literature.
In basic, the interplay of electromagnetic fields and waves with organic platforms is frequency-dependent. in addition, the mechanisms of interplay for fields at low frequencies are very varied from these at excessive frequencies. whereas major advances are being made on many fronts, a unique emphasis of this quantity is on present and destiny biomedical purposes of electromagnetic fields, ranging in frequency from quasi-static to the optical area. every one bankruptcy involves a accomplished presentation of a subject of present curiosity and growing to be significance.
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Extra info for Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems
In other words, a magnetic ﬂux applied to the ﬂux transformer will be compensated by a superconducting current, which 20 Maria J. Peters et al. SQUID superconducting shield superconducting wire Magnetic flux Figure 12. An example of a ﬂux transformer, a ﬁrst-order gradiometer. generates a counterbalancing ﬂux. The superconducting current is linear proportional to the applied magnetic ﬂux. The input coil is a small coil that is positioned on top of the SQUID. The superconducting current in this coil generates a magnetic ﬂux, which in turn is linear proportional to the superconducting current.
Although, the vector ECGs of children show a large variety, all data seem to indicate that the largest vector is pointing towards the right, anterior-inferior octant, with a wide variety of angles. A wide variety of values is also obtained for P-waves. 3 mV, the direction varies as well [DePasquale and Burch, 1963]. However, in general the same direction as in the adult heart is observed pointing from the right to the left atrium. The vector ECGs of newborns show a ratio of about one to six for the amplitude of the P-wave and the R-wave, each measured in the direction of that of the QRS-complex.
16B, the current density distribution in a vertical cross-section through the abdomen is depicted, showing that most currents are conﬁned to the fetus and amniotic ﬂuid. The current density in the maternal abdomen is 32 Maria J. Peters et al. A B z-axis Fat Remainder maternal abdomen Amniotic fluid Fetus x-axis y-axis Colorscale Am−2/Am 0 100 200 300 400 500 Figure 16. Cross section of a four compartment abdominal model and the current distribution within a cross section. very low. This result explains why fetal ECGs are difﬁcult to measure as the potential differences at the abdominal surface are small when the local current density is small.
Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems by James C. Lin