By Alan Martin, Sam Harbison, Karen Beach, Peter Cole
A brand new variation of the UK's regular creation to the risks awarded by way of ionizing radiation and the tools of security and control.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Radiation Protection 6E
4 EQUIVALENT DOSE Although the quantity absorbed dose is a very useful physical concept, it transpires that, in biological systems the same degree of damage is not necessarily produced by the same absorbed dose of different types of radiation. 05 Gy of fast neutrons can do as much biological damage as 1 Gy of g radiation. This difference in the radiobiological effectiveness must be taken into account if we wish to add doses of different radiations to obtain the total biologically effective dose.
2 Ionization chamber system. respective electrodes constitutes an electrical current and, since this is proportional to the intensity of radiation, ion chambers provide a means of measuring radiation. It should be realized that, although only a few ion pairs are shown in the ﬁgure, in the case of beta (b) particles, several hundreds of ion pairs are formed per centimetre of track in air and, in the case of a particles, some tens of thousands. In a medium such as water (of which the human body is largely composed), ionization can lead to a breakdown of water molecules and the formation of chemical forms that are damaging to biological material.
In water, the process may be written as: radiation H2O ææÆ H2O+ + e- where H2O+ is the positive ion and e− is the negative ion. 2. The physicochemical stage, lasting about 10−6 s, in which the ions interact with other water molecules, resulting in a number of new products. For example, the positive ion dissociates: H 2O + ææÆ H+ + OH The negative ion, that is the electron, attaches to a neutral water molecule, which then dissociates: H 2O + e - ææÆ H2O– H 2O - ææÆ H + OH- The interaction of radiation with cells Thus, the products of the reactions are H+, OH−, H and OH.
An Introduction to Radiation Protection 6E by Alan Martin, Sam Harbison, Karen Beach, Peter Cole