By Daniele Piomelli
This e-book is set the arachidonic acid cascade, its biochemistry, its pharmacology, and its roles in sign transduction. Arachidonic acid could function an intracellular moment messenger in lots of phone kinds, in addition to precursor for biologically energetic molecules akin to the eicosanoids (a family members of oxygenated metabolites which may act as moment messengers or as neighborhood mediators), and anandamide (an endogenous cannabinoid substance). Dysfunctions within the arachidonic acid cascade underlie a few critical pathological stipulations, making those biochemical pathways the objective for medicinal drugs of medical value.
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Additional info for Arachidonic Acid in Cell Signaling
0-, Biosynthesis, Storage and Mobilization of Arachidonic Acid 37 biosynthesis and turnover. In the following sections, we will be concerned with another essential question: how do living cells use this array of enzymes to control free arachidonate levels, when an appropriate stimulus excites them? We have seen that a series of 'first messenger' signaling molecules produce arachidonate mobilization by activating membrane receptors. Too many such effects have been described over the past 20 years to allow me to compile a review of this subject area that is both exhaustive and useful.
As a rule, their ability to produce a certain Biosynthesis, Storage and Mobilization of Arachidonic Acid 41 response is taken as good evidence for the presence of a G proteinmediated coupling mechanism. l 6,77 While studying signaling events in retinal photoreceptors, they observed that flashing light on dark-adapted rod outer segments (ROS) enhanced PLA2 activity (unfortunately not characterized in those studies). When the ROS were exposed, however, to light after incubation with GTP-y-S, this increase was significantly smaller.
Activation of PKC causes in most cells an increased stimulusdependent mobilization of arachidonate. As we have seen, the mechanism of this enhancement is not entirely understood, but it likely involves a cascade of biochemical events leading to the phosphorylation and activation of cytosolic group IV PiA2 •25 ,26 The possible significance of this modulatory effect-a 'priming' of cells in view of an increased response to upcoming stimuli-has been pointed out, yet some of its offshoots may also prove to be of some interest.
Arachidonic Acid in Cell Signaling by Daniele Piomelli