By John Watkinson
"The concept and dynamics of helicopter flight are advanced and for the uninitiated, tricky. yet during this e-book, British helicopter pilot and technical writer John Watkinson units out to simplify the thoughts, and clarify in lay-man's phrases how a helicopter operates. utilizing pictures and over four hundred diagrams, all elements of rotary flight are coated together with the background of rotor-craft, helicopter dynamics, rotors, tails, strength crops and keep watch over. this is often an exceptional booklet for any helicopter enthusiast." Airforce, Fall 2004 "...clear and straightforward diagrams that reduction verbal reasons of ways helicopters are made." -AOPA, 2004 "The artwork of the Helicopter is designed to de-mystify the complexity because it examines helicopter aerodynamic concept, layout and function. The booklet goals to debate its matters readably, commence every one topic from first rules and construct on these in a "clearly defined logical series utilizing simple English and transparent diagrams, fending off pointless mathematics"... - Flight protection Digest, may well 2004
, Pages xi-xii
, Page xiii
1 - creation to rotorcraft
, Pages 1-21
2 - Technical background
, Pages 22-60
3 - creation to helicopter dynamics
, Pages 61-116
4 - Rotors in practice
, Pages 117-165
5 - The tail
, Pages 166-190
6 - Engines and transmissions
, Pages 191-257
7 - Control
, Pages 258-322
8 - Helicopter performance
, Pages 323-346
9 - different kinds of rotorcraft
, Pages 347-378
, Pages 379-390
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Additional info for Art of the Helicopter
The gyroscope rotor has a 90 ~ phase lag just like a helicopter rotor. The outer gimbal will not turn because the applied couple is perfectly opposed by a reaction due to the rigidity of the gyro. The gyro can only generate the rigidity reaction by changing its angular momentum and to do this it must precess as the rotational speed cannot change. The rate of precession is proportional to the applied couple and inversely proportional to the angular momentum. The mechanical gyroscope held sway for a long time but has recently been supplanted by two alternatives.
Below resonance, the frequency of excitation is low and little force is needed to accelerate the mass. The force needed to deflect the spring is greater and so the system is said to be stiffness controlled. The amplitude is independent of frequency, described as constant amplitude operation, and so the velocity rises proportionally to frequency below resonance. Above resonance the. inertia of the mass is greater than the stiffness of the spring and the response of the system is described as mass controlled.
One peculiarity arises with Fourier analysis of helicopter rotors. The behaviour of a typical rotor is such that the coefficients of the harmonics are always negative. Technical background 49 ~ " ~ ~ ~ _ . ~ Input waveform ~ x Target frequency A ] (a) - - I A ~ ~ ] A ~, ~ ] A , ~ ~ ] A ~ ~ l ~/Pr~ ~ ~/ Integral of product Input waveform Target frequency (b) Product integral = 0 Input waveform Target frequency (c) Product integral = 0 Fig. 30 The input waveform is multiplied by the target frequency and the result is averagedor integrated.
Art of the Helicopter by John Watkinson