By Prof. Dr. Robin F. A. Moritz, Prof. Dr. Edward E. Southwick (auth.)
The honeybee (Apis melli/era L. ) is likely one of the higher studied organisms in the world. there are many books at the biology of the honeybee for all, the scientist, the beekeeper, and the layman. In view of this flood of courses one is tempted to invite: why does it require one other one? the answer's easy: a brand new one isn't really required and we don't intend to provide a brand new publication on "the honeybee". this may quite simply upload a few extra inches to the already overloaded bookshelf with no sub stantial new info. as an alternative, we intend to provide a ebook at the honeybee colony. This after all instantly releases the subsequent query: so what's the distinction? even though the adaptation may well glance insignificant initially look, we strive to lead the reader with a essentially various procedure during the biology of honeybees and eusocial insect societies usually. The biology of person colony individuals is barely addressed whilst it is important to give an explanation for colonial mechanisms, and the colony as an entire, as a organic unit, that's the focus of this treatise. either one of us felt that each one present textbooks on bee biology positioned an excessive amount of emphasis at the person employee, queen or drone within the colony. frequently it's com pletely missed that the colony is a truly major (if no longer the main major) organic constitution in bee biology.
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Additional resources for Bees as Superorganisms: An Evolutionary Reality
The only example for honeybees is given in the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, where individually fit workers cause poor colonies (Hillesheim et al. 1989; Moritz 1989). However, before we deal with this problem in detail, it is necessary to understand some genetics of superorganisms. We therefore will return to this problem in detail in Chapter 8, after having dealt with the genetics (Chap. 7). 1 Sociality in Bees The majority of bees live in a solitary or primitively social organization, far from representing a superorganism.
6). And again, both parental manipulation and kin selection could be simultaneously in operation, so that the presence of kin recognition would support kin selection but not reject the parental manipulation model. 1 Classical Group Selection Besides the efforts to explain the evolution of sociality on the individual basis, several attempts have been made to construct models on the basis of group selection. The major drawback of invoking group selection is that one of its preassumptions is what actually should be selected for, that is, groups.
Darwin perceived the importance of the family (thus a related group) as well as the individual, and therefore made use of both kin and group selection to save his theory of evolution through natural selection in social insects. "This difficulty (the one of sterile workers), though appearing insuperable, is lessened, or, as I believe, disappears, when it is remembered that selection may be applied to the family, as well as to the individual, and may thus gain the desired end" (Darwin 1859). Darwin gives a well-taken hypothetical example of cattle breeding, that shows how selection on infertile offspring can take effect via the reproductives.
Bees as Superorganisms: An Evolutionary Reality by Prof. Dr. Robin F. A. Moritz, Prof. Dr. Edward E. Southwick (auth.)