By Lewis Lockwood
It truly is renowned that Mozart constructed his works in his head after which easily transcribed them onto paper, whereas Beethoven laboured assiduously over sketches and drafts. certainly Beethoven's huge sketchbooks (which overall over 8,000 pages) and the autograph manuscripts, overlaying numerous levels of improvement, show the composer systematically exploring and evolving his musical principles. via shut research of person works, Lewis Lockwood strains the artistic technique because it emerges in Beethoven's sketches and manuscripts. 4 stories deal with the composition of the "Eroica" symphony from quite a few viewpoints. The chamber works mentioned contain the Cello Sonata in a big, Opus sixty nine (of which the total autograph manuscripts of the 1st stream is released right here in facsimile), the string quartet Opus fifty nine No. 1, and the Cavatina of the later quartet Opus one hundred thirty. Lockwood's research complements our figuring out of Beethoven's musical thoughts and stylistic advancements in addition to the compositional method itself. In a last bankruptcy the writer outlines the significance of Beethoven's autographs for the fashionable performer. Lewis Lockwood is usually writer of "Music in Renaissance Ferrara" which gained the Kinkeldey (music) and Marraro (history) prizes.
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Extra info for Beethoven: Studies in the Creative Process
The use of the red pencil seems to represent a separate pass through the manuscript by Beethoven, a pass that he did not carry all the way but only through the exposition. Presumably, this was because the development pages were already too well populated by inked-in changes, and perhaps also because he may have expected that he could depend on his very able copyist, Schlemmer, to carry red changes in the exposition over into parallel passages in the recapitulation. The red pencil was useful for correcting notes or accidentals, to reinforce certain passages (for example, зг/ 2/1), or to cancel (for example, 2г/11/2).
Notable too is that in his first letter mentioning the text of Op. 69 (letter to Breitkopf and Härtel of July 26, 1809) he also mentions his deep disturbance over current conditions in Vienna, which was then under French siege: "Since May 4 I have managed to produce A U T O G R A P H OF T H E F I R S T M O V E M E N T OF O P U S 69 З1 very little that is coherent, virtually only a fragment here and there. " In this same letter (source Μ in my list), the relevant passage is as follows (my translation; see Appendix II for the original text): Here is a goodly serving of printer's errors, which, since I never in my life trouble myself any longer about things I have already written, were pointed out to me by a good friend (they are in the violoncello sonata).
72, left hand (зг/11/4). A t a later stage Beethoven considered strengthening the bass register, presumably to bring out the new position of what had formerly been an upper line (mm. ). To do so, he marked " V i - " for the left hand at m. 7 1 and added the "left hand" interpolation visible on staff 1 2 just below the triplets. This second possibility lasted a little longer, as expressed in the verbal direction below m m . 7 3 - 7 4 : "col Violoncell in 8 " — but eventually it too gave way to a return to the idea of restricting the Pfte to the upper register only, in octaves, with the Vcl as sole bass support.
Beethoven: Studies in the Creative Process by Lewis Lockwood